Glutaraldehyde

CAS RN: 111-30-8

Health Effects

0.2.1 SUMMARY OF EXPOSURE
  • 0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) USES: Glutaraldehyde, an aliphatic dialdehyde, is a colorless liquid with a pungent odor, It is widely used in industrial, scientific and biomedical applications including biocidal treatment of water and paper, controlling bacterial growth in oil fields, cold sterilization of medical instruments and use as a histological fixative. It is commonly used as a disinfectant in endoscopy and bronchoscopy laboratories. It has also be used to treat hyperhidrosis (in low concentrations of 1% to 10%), the treatment of warts, an adhesive in dentistry, and a component in the manufacture of tissue transplants. It is available in aqueous solutions of various concentrations that can range from 1% to 50% (w/w).
    • B) TOXICOKINETICS: Glutaraldehyde can act as an eye, skin and respiratory tract irritant. It is also a skin and respiratory tract sensitizer. Clinical events can vary depending on the concentration. It has also been reported to produce dark room disease among radiographers defined as various symptoms of indefinite complaints, sometimes described as similar to sick building syndrome. Symptoms reported in human exposures appear to be dose-dependent.
    • C) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) COMMON: Glutaraldehyde can be a strong irritant to the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes.
      • 2) DERMAL: Glutaraldehyde can cause allergic contact dermatitis, skin discoloration and ulceration.
      • 3) INHALATION: Vapor exposure in humans has been associated with coryza, epistaxis, headache, asthma, chest pain, palpitations, tachycardia, nausea and vomiting. Among health care workers (eg, nurses, medical radiation technologists) peak concentrations of glutaraldehyde have been correlated with chronic bronchitis and nasal symptoms in some exposed individuals. Additional symptoms from exposure may include cough, rhinitis, respiratory difficulty, and lacrimation.
      • 4) INGESTION: Limited data. In one young adult, a patient developed pain with swallowing and mild abdominal pain following the intentional ingestion of 75 mL of a glutaraldehyde 15% w/v and coco benzyl dimethyl ammonium chloride 10% w/v solution. She recovered completely.
      • 5) ANIMAL DATA: CNS depression has occurred in experimental animals given intravenous injections.
0.2.3 VITAL SIGNS
  • 0.2.3.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Fever was observed in a child who developed chemical pneumonia after being inadvertently splashed on the face with a glutaraldehyde solution.
0.2.4 HEENT
  • 0.2.4.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Topical glutaraldehyde has caused severe eye injury in rabbits. A 2% solution may cause severe inflammation, lacrimation, and edema.
    • B) Glutaraldehyde is particularly irritating to the nose and throat.
0.2.6 RESPIRATORY
  • 0.2.6.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Occupational asthma has been reported following inhalation. It is delayed in onset.
    • B) Hemorrhagic pulmonary congestion and pneumonitis were common effects reported in animals regardless of whether glutaraldehyde was administered IV, orally, or by inhalation.
0.2.7 NEUROLOGIC
  • 0.2.7.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Seizures and CNS depression were noted in animals given intravenous glutaraldehyde.
0.2.21 CARCINOGENICITY
  • 0.2.21.1 IARC CATEGORY
    • A) IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS111-30-8 (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2016; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2015; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010a; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2008; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2007; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006; IARC, 2004):
      • 1) Not Listed
  • 0.2.21.2 HUMAN OVERVIEW
    • A) At the time of this review, no studies were found on the possible carcinogenic activity of glutaraldehyde in humans.
  • 0.2.21.3 ANIMAL OVERVIEW
    • A) NASAL CANCERS: Glutaraldehyde was tested against the known rat nasal carcinogen, formaldehyde, and found to be 5 times as potent as formaldehyde.
    • B) Glutaraldehyde was not carcinogenic in rats or mice by inhalation in a 13-week exposure.
0.2.22 GENOTOXICITY
  • A) Glutaraldehyde, in a dentin bonding agent, has been shown to be mutagenic in an Ames assay using Salmonella typhimurium strains as well as in sister chromatid exchange and mutations in mouse lymphocyte cells and cytogenetic changes in hamster ovary cells.
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