Acrylic acid

CAS RN: 79-10-7

Health Effects

0.2.1 SUMMARY OF EXPOSURE
  • 0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) USES: Acrylic acid is used in plastics manufacturing, molding powder, polymer solutions for coating applications, paint formulations, leather finishings, paper coatings, emulsion polymers, and in dentistry for dental plates, artificial teeth, and orthopedic cement.
    • B) TOXICOLOGY: Acids cause coagulation necrosis. Hydrogen ions desiccate epithelial cells, causing edema, erythema, tissue sloughing and necrosis, with formation of ulcers and eschars.
    • C) EPIDEMIOLOGY: Exposure is rare. Acrylic acid is typically available for industrial purposes.
    • D) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Acrylic acid exposure is unusual; limited data regarding specific human toxicity following acrylic acid exposure is available. The following effects could be expected to occur, based on exposure data of other acids.
      • 2) MILD TO MODERATE ORAL TOXICITY: Patients with mild ingestions may only develop irritation or grade I (superficial hyperemia and edema) burns of the oropharynx, esophagus or stomach; acute or chronic complications are unlikely. Patients with moderate toxicity may develop grade II burns (superficial blisters, erosions and ulcerations) are at risk for subsequent stricture formation, particularly gastric outlet and esophageal. Some patients (particularly young children) may develop upper airway edema.
      • 3) SEVERE ORAL TOXICITY: May develop deep burns and necrosis of the gastrointestinal mucosa. Complications often include perforation (esophageal, gastric, rarely duodenal), fistula formation (tracheoesophageal, aortoesophageal), and gastrointestinal bleeding. Upper airway edema is common and often life threatening. Hypotension, tachycardia, tachypnea and, rarely, fever may develop. Other rare complications include metabolic acidosis, hemolysis, renal failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, elevated liver enzymes, and cardiovascular collapse. Stricture formation (primarily gastric outlet and esophageal, less often oral) is likely to develop long term. Esophageal carcinoma is another long term complication.
        • a) PREDICTIVE: The grade of mucosal injury at endoscopy is the strongest predictive factor for the occurrence of systemic and GI complications and mortality. Initial signs and symptoms may not reliably predict the extent of GI burns.
      • 4) INHALATION EXPOSURE: Mild exposure may cause dyspnea, pleuritic chest pain, cough and bronchospasm. Severe inhalation may cause upper airway edema and burns, hypoxia, stridor, pneumonitis, tracheobronchitis, and rarely acute lung injury or persistent pulmonary function abnormalities. Pulmonary dysfunction similar to asthma has been reported.
      • 5) OCULAR EXPOSURE: Ocular exposure can produce severe conjunctival irritation and chemosis, corneal epithelial defects, limbal ischemia, permanent vision loss and in severe cases perforation.
      • 6) DERMAL EXPOSURE: A minor exposure can cause irritation and partial thickness burns. More prolonged or a high concentration exposure can cause full thickness burns. Complications may include cellulitis, sepsis, contractures, osteomyelitis and systemic toxicity.
  • 0.2.1.2 CHRONIC EXPOSURE
    • A) Animals exposed via chronic inhalation have developed lethargy, weight loss, kidney abnormalities, embryotoxicity, and inflammation to the upper respiratory tract and gastric mucosa.
0.2.4 HEENT
  • 0.2.4.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Vapors may cause eye irritation. The liquid may cause blindness if splashed into the eye. Vapors will also cause nasal irritation.
0.2.6 RESPIRATORY
  • 0.2.6.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Irritant effects may occur from acute inhalation.
0.2.10 GENITOURINARY
  • 0.2.10.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Rats given 700 mg/m(
      • 3) for 4 hours/day for 5 weeks developed reduced urine concentrating abilities. Another group of rats given four, 6-hour exposures to 1500 ppm were found to have kidney congestion upon histologic examination.
0.2.13 HEMATOLOGIC
  • 0.2.13.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Increased reticulocyte counts were seen in animals.
0.2.14 DERMATOLOGIC
  • 0.2.14.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Burns may be caused by splash contact.
0.2.20 REPRODUCTIVE HAZARDS
  • A) At the time of this review, no studies were found on the possible reproductive effects of acrylic acid in humans.
  • B) Acrylic acid was neither embryotoxic nor teratogenic in rats by inhalation. Intraperitoneal doses in pregnant rats resulted in decreased birth weight, skeletal abnormalities, and resorptions.
0.2.21 CARCINOGENICITY
  • 0.2.21.1 IARC CATEGORY
    • A) IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS79-10-7 (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2016; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2015; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010a; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2008; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2007; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006; IARC, 2004):
      • 1) IARC Classification
        • a) Listed as: Acrylic acid
        • b) Carcinogen Rating: 3
      • 1) The agent (mixture or exposure circumstance) is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. This category is used most commonly for agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances for which the evidence of carcinogenicity is inadequate in humans and inadequate or limited in experimental animals. Exceptionally, agents (mixtures) for which the evidence of carcinogenicity is inadequate in humans but sufficient in experimental animals may be placed in this category when there is strong evidence that the mechanism of carcinogenicity in experimental animals does not operate in humans. Agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances that do not fall into any other group are also placed in this category.
  • 0.2.21.3 ANIMAL OVERVIEW
    • A) Carcinogenic in a mouse skinpainting study; induced leukemia.
0.2.22 GENOTOXICITY
  • A) Acrylic acid induced mutations and chromosome aberrations in mouse cells.
Find more information on this substance at: PubChem, PubMed