Actinium, Radioactive

Protective Equip. / Clothing

/PRECAUTIONS FOR ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS:/ Protective apparel /for hospital workers/: Disposable closed-front gown or coveralls, disposable utility gloves over disposable latex gloves, NIOSH-approved air-purifying half-mask respirator equipped with a high efficiency filter, and eye protection should be worn. /Antineoplastic agents/
/PRECAUTIONS FOR ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS:/ /Hospital/ Workers who are not protected by the containment environment of a biohazard cabinet should use respiratory protection when handling hazardous drugs. Respiratory protection should be an adjunct to and not a substitute for engineering controls. Surgical masks of all types provide no respiratory protection against powdered or liquid aerosols of hazardous drugs. In situations where workers may be exposed to potential eye contact with hazardous drugs, an appropriate plastic face shield or splash goggles should be worn. /Antineoplastic agents/
/OPERATIONAL RADIATION SAFETY/ /U.S. NRC licensees must/ use only respiratory protection equipment that is tested and certified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) ... . The licensee /must/ implement and maintain a respiratory protection program that includes: (1) Air sampling sufficient to identify the potential hazard, permit proper equipment selection, and estimate doses; (2) Surveys and bioassays, as necessary, to evaluate actual intakes; (3) Testing of respirators for operability (user seal check for face sealing devices and functional check for others) immediately prior to each use; (4) Written procedures regarding: (i) Monitoring, including air sampling and bioassays; (ii) Supervision and training of respirator users; (iii) Fit testing; (iv) Respirator selection; (v) Breathing air quality; (vi) Inventory and control; (vii) Storage, issuance, maintenance, repair, testing, and quality assurance of respiratory protection equipment; (viii) Recordkeeping; and (ix) Limitations on periods of respirator use and relief from respirator use; (5) Determination by a physician that the individual user is medically fit to use respiratory protection equipment: (i) Before the initial fitting of a face sealing respirator; (ii) Before the first field use of non-face sealing respirators, and (iii) Either every 12 months thereafter, or periodically at a frequency determined by a physician. (6) Fit testing, with fit factor > 10 times the approved protection factor (APF) for negative pressure devices, and a fit factor > 500 for any positive pressure, continuous flow, and pressure-demand devices, before the first field use of tight fitting, face-sealing respirators and periodically thereafter at a frequency not to exceed 1 year. ... Standby rescue persons are required whenever one-piece atmosphere-supplying suits, or any combination of supplied air respiratory protection device and personnel protective equipment are used from which an unaided individual would have difficulty extricating himself or herself. The standby persons must be equipped with respiratory protection devices or other apparatus appropriate for the potential hazards.
/OPERATIONAL RADIATION SAFETY/ For external doses, a protective plastic suit can be worn as shielding against weakly penetrating radiation from airborne radioactive materials. This shielding will stop alphas and most betas and radioactive material, such as tritium, that can be also absorbed through the skin. For internal doses, one can wear a respirator, or wear a nonporous suit in atmospheres containing absorbable radionuclides.
/ALL USES/ /SRP/ Protective equipment and respirators do not provide protection against penetrating beta and gamma radiation. However, respirators prevent the inhalation of radioactive materials. Respirators should be tested and certified for the given use by NIOSH and persons using the respirator should have been fit tested before donning the equipment.
In most /emergency/ situations, respiratory protection that is designed to protect responders against chemical or biological agents is likely to offer some degree of respiratory protection in a radiological attack. Concerns about the presence of chemical or biological contaminants will influence the selection of respiratory protection. If used properly, simple face masks provide reasonably good protection against inhaling particulates, and allow sufficient air transfer for working at high breathing rates. If available, high-efficiency particulate air filter masks provide even better protection.
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