Viral hemorrhagic fevers


Reservoirs for Selected Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses*



Ebola virusb,c

Unknown (although asymptomatic infection has been  found in several species of fruit bats)

Marburg virusb,d


Lassa virusb,e

Mastomys species (multimammate mice)

New World arenaviruses:


Calomys musculinus (drylands vesper mouse)


Calomys callosus (large vesper mouse)


Zygodontomys brevicauda (cane mouse)


Not known; presumably an unknown rodent


Not known, presumably a rodent

    Arroyo  virusi

Neotoma species (woodrats)

Rift Valley fever virusb

Ruminants (eg, cattle, sheep), rats in some areas (eg, Egypt)

Yellow fever virusb


Kyasanur Forest disease virusb,j

Rodents, bats, and other small mammals; monkeys (eg, black-faced langur, South Indian bonnet macaque) appear to be amplifying hosts

Omsk hemorrhagic fever virusb

Rodents (including muskrats and voles)

aOnly agents that are considered to be potential biological weapons are considered here.
bSee References: Borio 2002; LeDuc 1989; Leroy 2005; WHO 1985: Viral haemorrhagic fevers: report of a WHO expert committee; Youssef 2002.
cSee References: Dowell 1999; Formenty 1999; Guimard 1999; Jaax 1995; Jaax 1996; Johnson 1995; WHO 1978: Ebola hemorrhagic fever in Zaire.
dSee References: Martini 1971.
eSee References: Carey 1972; Fisher-Hoch 1995; McCormick 1987; WHO 2001: Lassa hemorrhagic fever.
fSee References: CDC 1974: Bolivian hemorrhagic feve; Peters 1974.
gSee References: Salas 1991.
hSee References: Armstrong 1999.
iSee References: CDC 2000: Fatal illnesses associated with a New World arenavirus.
jSee References: Banerjee 1979.

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