Acetaldehyde

CAS RN: 75-07-0

Health Effects

0.2.1 SUMMARY OF EXPOSURE
  • 0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) This agent is a skin and mucous membrane irritant which causes a burning sensation of the nose, throat, and eyes. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations may injure the corneal epithelium causing persistent lacrimation, photophobia, and foreign body sensation.
    • B) Fatalities, following inhalation, are due to anesthesia when prompt and pulmonary edema when delayed. Very large exposures may cause death due to respiratory paralysis.
    • C) Prolonged skin contact may cause dermal erythema and burns. Repeated exposures may cause dermatitis due to primary irritation or sensitization.
    • D) Sympathomimetic effects of acetaldehyde include tachycardia, hypertension, and increased respiration. Bradycardia and hypotension occur at higher levels of acetaldehyde exposure.
0.2.3 VITAL SIGNS
  • 0.2.3.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Increased ventilation, hypertension, and tachycardia are sympathomimetic effects which may develop at low levels of exposure.
    • B) Higher levels produce bradycardia and hypotension.
0.2.4 HEENT
  • 0.2.4.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Human eye irritation begins to occur at 50 ppm in the air and becomes excessive at 200 ppm. Splash contacts produce painful but superficial corneal injury. Changes in auditory sensitivity were noted in one foreign study of vapor exposures.
0.2.5 CARDIOVASCULAR
  • 0.2.5.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) In humans, systemic poisoning can result in sympathomimetic effects of tachycardia and hypertension.
    • B) Ventricular dysrhythmias have occurred in halothane anesthetized animals given acetaldehyde.
0.2.6 RESPIRATORY
  • 0.2.6.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Acetaldehyde is a pulmonary irritant and may cause bronchitis and pulmonary edema when inhaled. Very high concentrations may result in respiratory paralysis.
0.2.7 NEUROLOGIC
  • 0.2.7.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) High serum concentrations have caused narcosis in animals.
0.2.8 GASTROINTESTINAL
  • 0.2.8.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Liquid acetaldehyde is an emetic.
0.2.9 HEPATIC
  • 0.2.9.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Acetaldehyde can impair mitochondrial respiration in the liver, similar to effects seen with ethanol.
0.2.14 DERMATOLOGIC
  • 0.2.14.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Prolonged contact causes erythema and burns. Repeated exposures may cause dermatitis.
0.2.20 REPRODUCTIVE HAZARDS
  • A) No human reproductive effects were found at the time of this review. Acetaldehyde was detected in 4 out of 8 samples of human breast milk. Embryotoxicity and malformations have been seen in animals.
0.2.21 CARCINOGENICITY
  • 0.2.21.1 IARC CATEGORY
    • A) IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS75-07-0 (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2016; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2015; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010a; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2008; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2007; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006; IARC, 2004):
      • 1) IARC Classification
        • a) Listed as: Acetaldehyde
        • b) Carcinogen Rating: 2B
      • 1) The agent (mixture) is possibly carcinogenic to humans. The exposure circumstance entails exposures that are possibly carcinogenic to humans. This category is used for agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances for which there is limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and less than sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. It may also be used when there is inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity in humans but there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. In some instances, an agent, mixture or exposure circumstance for which there is inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity in humans but limited evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals together with supporting evidence from other relevant data may be placed in this group.
  • 0.2.21.2 HUMAN OVERVIEW
    • A) Acetaldehyde has been implicated as a cocarcinogen in the workplace. There was an increased incidence of total cancers in acetaldehyde production workers as compared with the general population, although this study failed to adjust for confounders.
  • 0.2.21.3 ANIMAL OVERVIEW
    • A) Acetaldehyde is a carcinogen in rats and hamsters.
0.2.22 GENOTOXICITY
  • A) Acetaldehyde has been active in short-term assays for DNA damage and repair, mutagenicity, chromosome aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, micronucleus test, and oncogenic transformation (HSDB , 2001; RTECS , 2001).
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