Sodium Sulfate

CAS RN: 7757-82-6

Treatment Overview

0.4.2 ORAL EXPOSURE
  • A) MANAGEMENT OF MILD TO MODERATE TOXICITY
    • 1) In most cases, oral hydration and observation are all that is needed.
  • B) MANAGEMENT OF SEVERE TOXICITY
    • 1) Intravenous hydration and correction of electrolyte abnormalities may be necessary.
  • C) DECONTAMINATION
    • 1) Significant systemic absorption does not occur so GI decontamination is not recommended.
  • D) AIRWAY MANAGEMENT
    • 1) Airway management is rare necessary; intubation should be needed as clinically indicated.
  • E) ANTIDOTE
    • 1) No antidote is available.
  • F) CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE
    • 1) For patients with excessive sodium absorption and normal renal function, hypernatremia and volume overload can be managed with a diuretic such as furosemide (1 mg/kg/IV start with 20 mg in those naive to furosemide).
  • G) HYPOTENSION
    • 1) Infuse isotonic fluids is usually sufficient in most cases. If hypotension persists, administer dopamine (5 to 20 mcg/kg/min) or norepinephrine (DOSE: ADULT: Infuse at 0.5 to 1 mcg/min; CHILD: Infuse at 0.1 mcg/kg/min); titrate to desired response.
  • H) HYPOKALEMIA
    • 1) Monitor potassium if significant GI loss or dehydration. Replace potassium orally or intravenously as needed.
  • I) ENHANCED ELIMINATION
    • 1) Excessive sodium absorbed will be renally eliminated. Enhanced elimination is generally unnecessary except in patients with renal failure and severe hypernatremia or volume overload.
  • J) PATIENT DISPOSITION
    • 1) HOME CRITERIA: Asymptomatic patients or those with mild diarrhea and inadvertent exposure can be managed at home.
    • 2) ADMISSION CRITERIA: Patients with significant hypernatremia, confusion, dehydration, or hypotension should be admitted, observed, and carefully rehydrated.
    • 3) OBSERVATION CRITERIA: Patients with deliberate overdose or severe diarrhea should be referred to a healthcare facility for evaluation.
    • 4) CONSULT CRITERIA: Consult a poison center or medical toxicologist for assistance in managing patients with severe toxicity. Severe toxicity is exceedingly rare.
  • K) PHARMACOKINETICS
    • 1) Not well studied.
  • L) DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
    • 1) Dehydration may develop from multiple causes (eg, gastroenteritis).
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