Phencyclidine

CAS RN: 77-10-1

Exposure Summary

Phencyclidine's illegal production and use as a substance of abuse may result in its release to the environment through various waste streams. The compound is no longer produced or used for medical purposes in the US. If released to air, an estimated vapor pressure of 2.5X10-2 mm Hg at 25 deg C indicates phencyclidine will exist solely as a vapor in the atmosphere. Vapor-phase phencyclidine will be degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically-produced hydroxyl radicals; the half-life for this reaction in air is estimated to be 1.2 hours. Phencyclidine absorbs light at wavelengths <269 nm and, therefore, is not expected to be susceptible to direct photolysis by sunlight. If released to soil, phencyclidine is expected to have moderate mobility based upon an estimated Koc of 580. The pKa of phencyclidine is 8.29, indicating that this compound will exist partially in the cation form in the environment and cations generally adsorb more strongly to soils containing organic carbon and clay than their neutral counterparts. Volatilization of the neutral species from moist soil surfaces is expected to be an important fate process based upon an estimated Henry's Law constant of 5.5X10-6 atm-cu m/mole. Phencyclidine may not volatilize from dry soil surfaces based upon its estimated vapor pressure. Biodegradation data in soil or water were not available. If released into water, phencyclidine is expected to adsorb to suspended solids and sediment based upon the estimated Koc. Volatilization of the neutral species from water surfaces is expected to be an important fate process based upon this compound's estimated Henry's Law constant. Estimated volatilization half-lives for a model river and model lake are 11 and 81 days, respectively. An estimated BCF of 580 suggests the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is high, provided the compound is not metabolized by the organism. Hydrolysis is not expected to be an important environmental fate process since this compound lacks functional groups that hydrolyze under environmental conditions (pH 5 to 9). Use data indicate that the exposure to phencyclidine will be limited to those involved in the illegal manufacture and via inhalation and ingestion of illicit products containing phencyclidine. (SRC)
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