Allyl Chloride

CAS RN: 107-05-1

Health Effects

0.2.1 SUMMARY OF EXPOSURE
  • 0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Allyl chloride is an eye, skin, throat and respiratory tract mucosa irritant. Eye contact can produce orbital/ocular pain, redness, conjunctivitis, photophobia, blurred vision and burns. Severe irritation with corneal injury can result in permanently impaired vision or blindness.
    • B) Brief contact with the skin can cause pain, redness, numbness and first-degree burns; longer exposure can cause second-degree burns. A "deep-bone ache" may occur several hours after skin contact. Allyl chloride is rapidly absorbed through the skin and can produce systemic effects.
    • C) Inhalation can produce a cough, sore throat, headache, dizziness, abdominal cramps, burning sensation, vomiting, labored breathing, and unconsciousness. Pulmonary hemorrhage and edema may result from exposure. Ingestion can result in abdominal pain and vomiting. Absorption through the respiratory tract can produce systemic effects.
    • D) Peripheral neuropathy, with weakness, numbness and paresthesia, as well as respiratory damage and impairment, mild hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity have occurred in chronically exposed workers.
    • E) Exposed experimental animals have developed severe liver and kidney injuries, pulmonary edema and hemorrhages, and peripheral neuropathies.
0.2.4 HEENT
  • 0.2.4.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Eye irritation and corneal burns may occur.
    • B) Irritation of the nose and throat may occur.
0.2.5 CARDIOVASCULAR
  • 0.2.5.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Higher cardiovascular mortality rates have been reported for workers presumed to have prolonged and higher exposure to epichlorohydrin which is produced from allyl chloride.
0.2.6 RESPIRATORY
  • 0.2.6.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Irritation of the mucosa of the respiratory tract may be seen. Pulmonary edema and hemorrhages have been reported in exposed experimental animals.
    • B) Decreased maximum ventilation capacity was observed in exposed female workers.
0.2.7 NEUROLOGIC
  • 0.2.7.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Chronically exposed workers have developed peripheral polyneuropathies.
    • B) Headache, dizziness, vertigo, and unconsciousness may occur with acute allyl chloride exposure.
0.2.8 GASTROINTESTINAL
  • 0.2.8.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Nausea and vomiting may occur.
0.2.9 HEPATIC
  • 0.2.9.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Chronically exposed workers have had subclinical abnormalities of liver function tests.
0.2.10 GENITOURINARY
  • 0.2.10.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Chronically exposed workers have had subclinical proteinuria and microscopic hematuria. Exposed experimental animals have had severe kidney injury.
0.2.12 FLUID-ELECTROLYTE
  • 0.2.12.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Chronically exposed workers have had subclinical electrolyte elevations and increased glomerular filtration rates.
0.2.14 DERMATOLOGIC
  • 0.2.14.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Direct skin exposure causes irritation and a deep-seated pain at the exposure site. Occasionally, burns and internal injuries ensue.
0.2.20 REPRODUCTIVE HAZARDS
  • A) At the time of this review, no reproductive studies were found for allyl chloride in humans.
0.2.21 CARCINOGENICITY
  • 0.2.21.1 IARC CATEGORY
    • A) IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS107-05-1 (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2016; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2015; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010a; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2008; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2007; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006; IARC, 2004):
      • 1) IARC Classification
        • a) Listed as: Allyl chloride
        • b) Carcinogen Rating: 3
      • 1) The agent (mixture or exposure circumstance) is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. This category is used most commonly for agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances for which the evidence of carcinogenicity is inadequate in humans and inadequate or limited in experimental animals. Exceptionally, agents (mixtures) for which the evidence of carcinogenicity is inadequate in humans but sufficient in experimental animals may be placed in this category when there is strong evidence that the mechanism of carcinogenicity in experimental animals does not operate in humans. Agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances that do not fall into any other group are also placed in this category.
  • 0.2.21.2 HUMAN OVERVIEW
    • A) A study of more than 1000 workers exposed to epichlorohydrine and allyl chloride found no increase in mortality from malignant neoplasms.
0.2.22 GENOTOXICITY
  • A) Allyl chloride is metabolized to ACROLEIN and EPICHLOROHYDRIN (He et al, 199
    • 5) which are genotoxic.
0.2.23 OTHER
  • 0.2.23.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Odor of garlic on the breath and body was a common complaint among exposed employees.
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