d-methamphetamine

CAS RN: 537-46-2

Exposure Summary

d-Methamphetamine's production and administration as a human and veterinary medication and illicit drug may result in its release to the environment through various waste streams. If released to air, an estimated vapor pressure of 5.4X10-3 mm Hg at 25 deg C indicates d-methamphetamine will exist solely as a vapor in the atmosphere. Vapor-phase d-methamphetamine will be degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically-produced hydroxyl radicals; the half-life for this reaction in air is estimated to be 1 hour. d-Methamphetamine does not contain chromophores that absorb at wavelengths >290 nm and, therefore, is not expected to be susceptible to direct photolysis by sunlight. If released to soil, d-methamphetamine is expected to have low mobility based upon an estimated Koc of 900. The pKa of d-methamphetamine is 9.87, indicating that this compound will exist almost entirely in the cation form in the environment and cations generally adsorb more strongly to soils containing organic carbon and clay than their neutral counterparts. Volatilization from moist soil is not expected because the compound exists as a cation and cations do not volatilize. d-Methamphetamine is not expected to volatilize from dry soil surfaces based upon its vapor pressure. Biodegradation half-lives of 131 days in sandy loam and 502 days in loam soil suggest that biodegradation in soil is dependent upon soil conditions. If released into water, d-methamphetamine is expected to adsorb to suspended solids and sediment based upon the estimated Koc. d-Methamphetamine present at 1090 ng/L, decreased in concentration to 675 and 529 ng/L in duplicate test runs over 15 days using river microcosm bioreactors, suggesting that biodegradation may be an important environmental fate process in water. The pKa indicates d-methamphetamine will exist almost entirely in the cation form at pH values of 5 to 9 and, therefore, volatilization from water surfaces is not expected to be an important fate process. An estimated BCF of 11 suggests the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is low. Hydrolysis is not expected to be an important environmental fate process since this compound lacks functional groups that hydrolyze under environmental conditions (pH 5 to 9). Occupational exposure to d-methamphetamine may occur through inhalation and dermal contact with this compound at workplaces where d-methamphetamine is produced or used. Monitoring data indicate that the general population may be exposed to d-methamphetamine via ingestion of contaminated water. Exposure to d-methamphetamine among the general population will be by direct medical treatment and also occurs among those abusing this drug. (SRC)
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