Trichloroethylene

CAS RN: 79-01-6

Health Effects

0.2.1 SUMMARY OF EXPOSURE
  • 0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) GENERAL - Trichloroethylene (TCE) is toxic by ingestion, inhalation or dermal exposure. Inhalation of TCE can cause euphoria, hallucinations and distorted perceptions; inhalational abuse, with addiction, has been reported. TCE vapor may be irritating to the nose and throat.
    • B) INHALATION - Narcosis and anesthesia occur after inhalation. Adverse effects from inhalation exposure include bronchial irritation, dyspnea, pulmonary edema, respiratory depression, euphoria, dizziness, restlessness, irritability, incoordination, central nervous system depression, impaired concentration, confusion, drowsiness, loss of consciousness, seizures, renal and hepatic damage, as well as fatal cardiac dysrhythmias.
    • C) INGESTION - Effects from ingestion include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, dysphagia, jaundice, somnolence, headache, dizziness, incoordination, elevated creatine kinase, hallucinations or distorted perceptions, paresthesia, partial paralysis, dysrhythmias and circulatory collapse. The main systemic response is CNS depression.
    • D) OCULAR - Direct contact with the eye may result in pain and injury to the corneal epithelium; recovery usually occurs within a few days. Double vision, blurred vision, optic neuritis and blindness can occur after exposure.
    • E) DERMAL - TCE is a skin irritant and may cause defatting dermatitis of the skin. Scleroderma has been linked with TCE exposure. Dermal absorption is not likely to be significant if dermatitis is prevented. Vasodilation and malaise ('degreasers flush') recur in workers who drink ethanol after exposure to TCE. Chemical burns have been reported with concentrated exposure to TCE vapors.
    • F) CHRONIC - Long-term occupational exposure may result in hearing loss, memory loss, fatigue, flushing, ECG changes, vomiting, renal and hepatic damage, CNS depression, irritability, encephalopathy, dementia, neuropathy, paresthesias and possibly systemic sclerosis. Visual disturbances, oculomotor paralysis and trigeminal palsies have been reported after occupational exposure.
  • 0.2.1.2 CHRONIC EXPOSURE
    • A) Chronic inhalational exposures may result in renal and hepatic damage as well as CNS depressant effects.
0.2.3 VITAL SIGNS0.2.4 HEENT
  • 0.2.4.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Optic neuritis and blindness has been reported after exposure. Direct contact with the eye may result in injury to the corneal epithelium; recovery usually occurs within a few days and permanent injury is unlikely.
      • 2) Hearing deficiency and bilateral, symmetrical sixth cranial nerve deafness have been reported.
      • 3) Cranial nerve palsies have developed as a result of TCE exposure.
0.2.5 CARDIOVASCULAR
  • 0.2.5.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Cardiac dysrhythmias (ventricular and atrial fibrillation), hypotension, conduction defects and myocardial injury have been noted.
0.2.6 RESPIRATORY
  • 0.2.6.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Respiratory depression, cyanosis, pulmonary hemorrhages and edema have been reported after exposure to TCE.
0.2.7 NEUROLOGIC
  • 0.2.7.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) CNS depression, lightheadedness, dizziness and euphoria, particularly after inhalation, have been noted. Trigeminal nerve impairment has been reported in individuals chronically and acutely poisoned by TCE.
      • 2) CNS depression, tremor and motor restless may occur after ingestion.
      • 3) Multiple nerve palsies and peripheral neuropathy have been reported after intoxication.
0.2.8 GASTROINTESTINAL
  • 0.2.8.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Nausea, vomiting, salivation, loss of taste, anorexia, abdominal pain, diarrhea and dysphagia have all been linked with exposure to TCE. Fatal abdominal compartment syndrome was reported in one adult.
0.2.9 HEPATIC
  • 0.2.9.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Liver injury has been reported.
0.2.10 GENITOURINARY
  • 0.2.10.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Renal failure may occur after oral or inhalation exposure to TCE.
0.2.14 DERMATOLOGIC
  • 0.2.14.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) TCE is mildly irritating to the skin. Defatting dermatitis can occur after contact with the liquid. Higher concentrations, including vapor exposure, may result in chemical burns. Chronic exposure may produce rash, dry skin, and scleroderma. Chemical burns have been reported with concentrated exposure to TCE vapors. Stevens-Johnson syndrome has been described following TCE exposure.
0.2.15 MUSCULOSKELETAL
  • 0.2.15.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Diffuse fasciitis with eosinophilia has been reported after chronic ingestion.
      • 2) Systemic sclerosis has been described after occupational exposures.
0.2.16 ENDOCRINE
  • 0.2.16.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Menstrual irregularities and possible anovulation were reported after occupational exposure to TCE vapor.
0.2.18 PSYCHIATRIC
  • 0.2.18.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Organic dementia has been reported after occupational exposure to TCE.
0.2.19 IMMUNOLOGIC
  • 0.2.19.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus have been reported after chronic exposures.
      • 2) Eosinophilia has been reported after acute exposures.
0.2.20 REPRODUCTIVE HAZARDS
  • A) Although some studies have found birth defects and spontaneous abortions related to exposure to TCE, most involved concomitant confounding exposure to other chemicals. It does cross the placenta. Abnormal sperm morphology has occurred after exposure.
  • B) Many laboratory animal studies have shown that TCE does not adversely affect fertility or embryo implantation and survival, and does not cause teratogenic effects. TCE has, however, been shown to produce some developmental abnormalities. Reversible suppression of male copulation was shown in a few studies.
0.2.21 CARCINOGENICITY
  • 0.2.21.1 IARC CATEGORY
    • A) IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS79-01-6 (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2016; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2015; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010a; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2008; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2007; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006; IARC, 2004):
      • 1) IARC Classification
        • a) Listed as: Trichloroethylene
        • b) Carcinogen Rating: 1
      • 1) The agent (mixture) is carcinogenic to humans. The exposure circumstance entails exposures that are carcinogenic to humans. This category is used when there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans. Exceptionally, an agent (mixture) may be placed in this category when evidence of carcinogenicity in humans is less than sufficient but there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals and strong evidence in exposed humans that the agent (mixture) acts through a relevant mechanism of carcinogenicity.
  • 0.2.21.2 HUMAN OVERVIEW
    • A) Conflicting results have been obtained regarding the carcinogenicity of trichloroethylene in humans. As of 2014, IARC has classified trichlorethylene as Group 1 - carcinogenic to humans.
  • 0.2.21.3 ANIMAL OVERVIEW
    • A) Trichloroethylene has been shown to be carcinogenic in laboratory animals in some studies, particularly for hepatic cancer in rats and renal and pulmonary cancer in mice. However, the study results were weakened by possible presence of confounding contaminants.
0.2.22 GENOTOXICITY
  • A) Trichloroethylene has produced mixed genotoxic results in humans, laboratory animals and cultured cells. The presence or absence of contaminants seems to affect its genotoxicity.
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